Views:135 Author:Site Editor Publish Time: 2020-07-24 Origin:Site
Children's bone tissue has more water and organic matter (bone glue), less inorganic salts (calcium phosphate, calcium carbonate), and more cartilage components. These structural characteristics of bone make bones have better elasticity and poor firmness. Children's bones are not easy to break completely, but they are prone to bending and deformation.
The articular cartilage of adolescents is thicker, the joint capsules and ligaments are stretchable, the muscles around the joints are slender, and the range of motion of the joints is larger than that of adults, but the joints are weak and easily dislocated under external force.
Muscles contain more water, less protein, fat, and inorganic phases. Muscles are delicate, weak in contraction, poor endurance, and fatigue. The development of muscles in various parts of the body of adolescents is unbalanced. The trunk muscles precede the limbs, the flexors precede the extensors, the upper limb muscles precede the lower limb muscles, and the development of large muscles before small muscles. The development of muscle strength also has irregular regularity. During the accelerated growth period, when the height growth accelerates, the muscles mainly develop longitudinally. Muscle strength and endurance are poor. At the end of the accelerated growth period, the muscles develop laterally and the muscle fibers thicken. , Muscle strength increases.
According to the structural and functional characteristics of the muscles, joints and bones of young children, the following points should be paid attention to during physical exercise:
① Make full use of the characteristics of the large range of motion of the joints, do more flexibility exercises, and should pay attention to the development of joint stability to prevent joint damage.
②Proper physical exercise can promote the growth of bones and make the body grow taller, but the exercise load should not be too large, and symmetrical exercises should be carried out to avoid bending the spine and deformity of the limbs.
③It is necessary to develop the muscle strength of small muscle groups in a planned way to promote the balanced development of muscles. During the growth acceleration period, more strength exercises such as vertical jumping and supporting your own body weight should be used to stretch the limbs, and less or no strength exercises with large loads should be performed.
The heart volume of adolescents is relatively small, the systolic strength of the heart is poor, and the heart rate is faster. As the age increases, the systolic strength gradually increases and the heart rate slows down. Children's blood vessel walls have good elasticity, the diameter of blood vessels is relatively larger than that of adults, and the peripheral resistance is small. Therefore, children's blood pressure values are low.
According to the characteristics of children's cardiovascular function, aerobic exercises should be the main part of physical exercises, and high-intensity physical exercises should not be carried out to prevent overloading the heart. In addition, hold your breath, tension and static work as much as possible during physical exercise to avoid overloading the heart.
The nervous process of adolescents is unstable, excitement easily spreads in the cerebral cortex, and the ability to concentrate on nervous system activities is weak. The children are active and active, uncoordinated, prone to redundant movements, and inattention.
According to the characteristics of the nervous system of children and teenagers, the content of sports activities should be lively and diverse, and the exercise time should not be too long, but short rest periods should be used to make them energetic.